If your doctor requests an advanced imaging scan to aid in making a diagnosis, two of the most common tests requested are the CT Scan and MRI. Let’s take a look at how each of these tests show cross-sectional pictures of the body using different techniques.
CT stands for computerized tomography. This scan uses multiple x-rays that are taken at different angles in order to produce a cross-sectional image.
MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging. Here a combination of magnetic fields and radio frequencies are used, so the MRI scanner can generate a 3D image of the part of the body being examined.
Both of these techniques can be used to examine the same parts of the body, and the choice of which one should be used is based on the possible diagnosis. In general, CT scans are used for diagnosing serious injuries to the head, chest, spine, abdomen, and pelvis, and are helpful when trying to determine if fractures are involved. In contrast, the MRI does a better job of diagnosing issues in joints, tendons, ligaments, and soft tissues. MRIs are often used to scan the brain, spine, neck, breast, abdomen, and muscles.
Differences between a CT Scan and MRI
- Radiation – CT scans use X-ray technology so minimal radiation exposure is present. CT scans are not usually used during pregnancy for this reason. MRI’s do not involve radiation.
- Cost – CT scans are usually less expensive than MRI tests.
- Time for Procedure – CT scans are done fairly quickly. Most CT scans take around 5 minutes to complete. MRI’s can range from 15 minutes to 2 hours depending on the part of the body that is being examined.
- Patient comfort – CT scans are done in an open machine so concerns about being in a small space are rarely an issue. MRI’s are traditionally done in a narrow tube, and can sometimes cause anxiety. Hampton Roads Orthopaedics & Sports Medicine has an open MRI machine to help with concerns about anxiety if MRI is the best choice for the diagnosis.
- Limitations – The table used in CT scans accommodate approximately 300 pounds, so if a larger table is required, a patient may need to go to a facility with appropriate equipment. MRI machines with the conventional tube design may also have limitations based on the size of the patient. Open MRI machines would be an alternative option. In addition, MRI machines utilize magnetic fields during the scan so patients with certain metal objects implanted in the body (e.g. pacemakers, rods, some prosthetic joints, and even certain tattoos) may prevent the use of MRI tests.
Your doctor will discuss the type of test that they are considering to make the diagnosis. If you have any questions or concerns please share that with your specialist. Schedule an appointment at one of our seven locations!
It’s that time of year again – Breast Cancer Awareness Month (BCAM)! This annual campaign was created to increase awareness of the disease. These days most people are aware of breast cancer, but many forget to take the steps to have a plan to detect the disease in its early stages and encourage others to do the same.
At Peninsula Radiology we want to encourage women to get their yearly mammograms, and invite others to do the same. Breast Cancer is the most common cancer, and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in America. Before the onset of mammography screening, the death rate from advanced breast cancer remained unchanged for 50 years. However, since 1990, this rate has decreased by 30 percent, and recent studies suggest that mammograms may even be more effective than previously thought, reducing breast cancer mortality by more than 30 to 60 percent.
It is important for physicians to educate their patients on the benefits of mammography, and to provide them with the proper resources, so that they may make the best decisions for their well-being.
We make it easy and convenient for you to schedule your annual Mammogram. Thanks to Riverside’s Self-Scheduler, you can now schedule your screening mammogram from any computer, at any time. The Self-Scheduler is simple and quick to use. You will first need to create and account by selecting a user name and password. Once your account is set up, you will be able to schedule, re-schedule or cancel your appointment at your convenience.
Another great feature about the Self-Scheduler is that it provides instructions on how to prepare for your appointment. Following these guidelines will help to ensure that you will get the most out of your breast cancer screening appointment.
When you hear the term nuclear medicine, there’s a chance you may be a bit concerned with the treatment. After all, nuclear fallout, nuclear weapons, and nuclear meltdowns all have a negative connotation. When it comes to nuclear medicine imaging, however, there is no danger in it.
What is Nuclear Medicine
Nuclear medicine isn’t something you take, like a pain reliever or antibiotic. Rather, it’s simply an imaging process, or a scan. What happens during this scan is a small amount of radioactive material is used, alongside a special camera and computer, to capture images of the insides of your body.
Of course, there are other imaging techniques, so why use nuclear medicine for imaging? Simply stated, because nuclear medicine imaging is able to detect molecular activity with precision, and can discover diseases in their earliest stages, during which time they’re easier to treat.
Preparing for the Exam
Generally speaking, there isn’t a lot you need to do to prepare for a nuclear medicine scan. If, however, the scan will be looking at the stomach, you may be asked to not eat food before coming. Likewise, if the scan is for the kidneys, you may be asked to drink lots of water beforehand. Whatever the case, your radiologist will let you know what you should do before you come in.
What You Should Expect
Most scans will have you lie down on a table. The camera may look like a CT scanner, however it may also be positioned above the table or below the table. While the images are being taken, you must stay as still as possible so as to get the most accurate image. Don’t worry about the radioactivity lingering in your body, either. The majority of it leaves your body through urine and stool. The rest disappears over time, so if you were hoping to gain superpowers like Spider-Man from nuclear medicine, you’re out of luck.
If you need nuclear medicine imaging or other radiology services, please schedule an appointment with us at Peninsula Radiology by giving us a call at (757) 989-8830.
Cancer is a heartbreaking illness that is very difficult to treat and incredibly painful to go through. Based on 2010-2012 data, 39.6% of Americans are diagnosed with cancer at some point during their lifetime. There are several forms of cancer that can develop many different ways, and a few ways to take breast cancer screenings.
Breast cancer is a form of cancer that develops from breast tissue. It is most common in women over the age of 40 but also affects younger women as well. Men also have a risk of developing breast cancer, although the rate of breast cancer seen in men is far lower than the rate of breast cancer seen in women. In the United States, less than 5 percent of women with breast cancer are younger than 40. Breast cancer rates are highest among women over the age of 70. With any form of cancer, it is better to detect the problem earlier on before it escalates further and becomes harder to treat.
There are several ways to check if breast cancer is present. One way to check yourself for breast cancer is to do a self-examination once a month. Self-examination is the process of an individual looking for physical or visual changes in the breasts. To do a self-examination, your breasts should be dry and there should be no lotions or other similar products on your fingers. Find a comfortable couch or bed and lay down flat on your back. Use the pads, not the tips, of your index, middle, and ring fingers. Start from the outer areas of the breast and work your way towards the center, carefully feeling for any lumps that might exist. If you feel anything, do not panic, for many of these lumps turn out to be non-cancerous.
Self-examinations are just one way to check for breast cancer, but the best and most effective way to screen yourself for breast cancer is by making an appointment with your doctor and scheduling a mammogram or breast ultrasound. Even if no lumps are felt by the self-examination, women over the age of 40 should schedule these breast cancer screenings regularly. Always keep an eye on your health and be sure to check with your doctor if you come across anything concerning. The best way to fight cancer is to detect it early.
Peninsula Radiology urges you to do a monthly breast self exam. If you or a family member require guidance to find a qualified breast health specialist in your area, please contact one of our seven locations for help.
What is bone density testing?
Bone density testing—also known as dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA)—uses x-ray images to assess bone mineral density (BMD). The absorption of dual x-ray beams by a patient’s bone is measured to determine the overall strength of the bone and the risk of fracture. The test is typically performed on the lower spine and hips.
What does bone density testing discover?
A bone density test is currently the only way to diagnose osteoporosis, a disease characterized by decreased bone density and quality. Osteoporosis and low bone density (osteopenia) increase the risk of bone fracture. Therefore, DEXA can be used to:
- Diagnose osteoporosis, either before or after a bone fracture
- Identify decreased bone density before you break a bone
- Assess your risk of bone fractures
- Monitor the success of osteoporosis treatment
When is bone density testing recommended?
Your healthcare provider will conduct a thorough health assessment to determine if you’re at risk for osteoporosis or decreased bone density. A bone density test may be considered if:
- Further bone testing is recommended based on the results of a screening test such as a peripheral dual x-ray absorptiometry (pDXA), quantitative ultrasound (QUS), or peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)
- You’ve lost height of at least ½ inch within a year
- You’ve lost a total height of 1 ½ inches
- You’ve had a break or bone loss in your spine
- You are a woman aged 65 or older
- You are a man aged 70 or older
- You break a bone after age 50
- You are a post-menopausal woman not taking estrogen
- You have risk factors such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic kidney disease, liver disease, type 1 diabetes, or a thyroid condition
- You use medications that can cause bone loss, such as corticosteroids, anti-seizure medications, or high-dose thyroid replacement medications
How is bone density testing conducted?
Bone density tests are fast, easy, and noninvasive outpatient procedures. You will lay on a padded table while a mechanical imaging device passes over your body. You will be asked to stay still and perhaps hold your breath for a few seconds to ensure a clear image. The amount of radiation you’re exposed to is very small.
How are bone density test results interpreted?
Bone density test results are reported in T-scores and Z-scores:
Your T-score measures your bone mass compared to the bone mass of a healthy young adult of your gender.
- -1 and above: Normal bone density
- Between -1.1 and -2.5: Osteopenia (low bone density)
- -2.5 and below: Osteoporosis
Your Z-score measures your bone mass compared to healthy adults of your age, gender, weight, and ethnicity. If your score is significantly higher or lower than normal, you may need further medical tests.
If you meet any of the above mentioned recommendations for considering bone density testing, give Peninsula Radiology a call at (757) 898-8830. We’d love to help!
Depending on the illness or injury that brought them there, people tend to walk into their doctors’ offices with several questions that will hopefully guide them onto the path of recovery. As new technologies develop and diagnostic systems advance with ever-increasing accuracy, the discussions between doctor and patient can become complex. In order to properly diagnose and treat all of the injuries and diseases that occur within the human body, it is important that patients have a clear understanding about radiological procedures and all of its benefits.
A recent study presented at the annual Radiological Society of North America meeting determined that more than 64% of respondents stated that they had little or no understanding regarding the critical role of radiologist. To clarify, radiologists specialize in producing pictures of the human body using state-of-the-art imaging technology, such as X-rays, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These medical specialists are central members of the multidisciplinary clinical care team who play a vital role in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries within adults and children, including babies and unborn fetuses.
Since Peninsula Radiological Associates is affiliated with the esteemed Riverside Health System, patients are offered the following specialties and services:
• CAT Scans, which display several different types of tissue
• X-rays, which identify and treat bone fractures
• DEXA Scans, which measure bone loss and density
• Embolization, which stop blood supply to destructive tumors
• MRI, which diagnose cancer, vascular disease, and neurological disorders
• Musculoskeletal imaging, which pinpoint spinal disorders and arthritis
• Nuclear medicine, such as PET scans, which evaluate respiratory problems and organ function
• Radiofrequency Ablation, which locate and eliminate tumors using electrical energy
Of course, there are several other imaging procedures available through the dependable care of our board-certified radiologists. Women’s Imaging, for example, includes a wide range of valuable services related to breast cancer, such as digital mammography and image guided biopsy.
Because these terms can appear confusing or overwhelming to some patients, we uphold the ideas behind the “Radiology Cares” initiative, which seeks to effectively promote effective communication between the patient and healthcare providers. As a result, our patients are empowered to make informed decisions regarding their rehabilitative care.
Overall, direct communication is essential to improving our community’s awareness of the dynamic role radiologists play in healthcare. Even more importantly, direct interactions with these specialists will enhance patient understanding and maintain comfort regarding their undergoing tests and procedures. These are the goals that we strive to achieve on a daily basis in order to provide the best healthcare possible.
We strongly encourage patient education, and are always ready and willing to answer any questions regarding your health.
As the first Breast Center of Excellence on the Peninsula, Riverside is committed to providing the highest level of care available within the bounds of current technology.
Mammography remains the “gold standard” method, proven to detect the majority of cancers at the earliest stages. The best data available supports a 30-60% reduction in woman’s chances of dying of this horrible disease (based on changes in the whole population including women not being screened – effect for screened women is likely greater). This means that 3-6 out of every 10 women with breast cancer in our entire population would not be alive if it were not for the advent of screening!
Despite this, only 6 out of 10 women choose to undergo recommended ANNUAL screening. Sadly, the majority of women dying of breast cancer were not getting annual screening at the time of diagnosis. While no test is perfect, mammography remains the only test proven to reduce the risk of dying from breast cancer. One in eight women get breast cancer at some point in their lives, please get screened somewhere.
Among women getting screened annually, we believe in a personalized approach to care. We believe in providing access to testing and we believe in education so women can make decisions with which they are most comfortable. We are sympathetic to the tremendous anxiety generated by the process of screening and early cancer detection. Part of this simply has to do with the nature of the disease. As a progressive disease, a woman’s chances of survival are dramatically improved the earlier the disease process is arrested. Cancer starts as normal tissue that then changes. Every woman’s tissue is unique and not all cancers look the same. Many cancers are difficult to detect until they look different from normal tissue. This means that there is a threshold below which detection is possible. Our efforts to detect very subtle changes can result in many “false positives” requiring additional workup i.e. “call backs”, and even biopsies. This is particularly true with the more sensitive/more costly tests such as breast MRI which is why we use them judiciously and predominantly in the most high risk women most likely to obtain benefit. Read more.
But we all still agree: this is not “good enough”. The women under our care are precious. We have to look them in the eye when we tell them the “news”. We all want to know in our hearts that we provided every possible tool and the best care possible. Who you trust to read your mammogram is every bit as important as the tool itself.
Of all the options under active investigation, Tomosynthesis holds the most promise and is increasingly available. But we do a tremendous disservice to women by overstating this promise. A more honest assessment is necessary so that women can make an informed decision. Read more
Tomosynthesis is an imaging technique that has been used since the 1930s but only recently applied to the breast because of radiation exposure issues that required significant retooling. It does not generate “3D” images in the strictest sense though that description has gained favor due to ease of description/corporate marketing. An x-ray beam sweep generates an image “slice” in the tissue of interest by blurring surrounding tissue with the exception of the focal point of the arc. As one of the difficulties with breast imaging detection is “superimposition” of tissue, this technique has the most theoretical potential for women with denser tissue.
Initial studies, however, failed to show an improvement over conventional “2D” mammography, particularly for detection of calcifications that often are scattered through imaging planes. “Change from prior studies” is also more difficult to assess – as some cancers do not look “mass-like” or have “spiculations”, there is a risk that the readers may have even more trouble detecting some cancers if they over-rely on the “tomo” images. Read more
Subsequent research efforts since this initial set-back have focused more on using this test as a supplement to regular mammography. When utilized in a “combo mode” both images are generated at a single compression such that women may feel that only one exam was performed, but in fact a supplemental test was added to their exam.
Newer advances have improved the technology such that an equivalent dose can now be expected and prior pitfalls avoided by use of reconstructed 2D images.
Several studies have shown an increase in cancer detection and some have shown a decrease in call-back rates when used this way, but these are not always the same study.
In our hands we are seeing a decrease in the call-back rates, further confirming this in an incremental step forward.
1) Tomosynthesis is still mammography. It does not replace mammography, rather it is a supplemental test acquired at the same time as a conventional “2D” mammogram.
2) It is not “more gentle” – compression is still required and if not performed will reduce the quality of the exam.
3) It is not “faster”- the length of time in compression is longer for both tests.
4) Secondary to recent advances including the ability to reconstruct 2D data from 3D data, it is now the “same dose” as a mammogram though possibly higher in women with larger breasts if additional pictures need to be taken for full coverage.
5) It is not really “3D” people say that to make description easy.
6) Even if not a “revolutionary” step forward it is at least an “incremental” improvement.
7) It is sometimes covered by insurance so out-of-pocket expenses may be higher.
We believe this is an incremental step forward. Consider choosing this option especially if you are a woman with dense tissue, complex breast pattern, and intermediate to high risk.
To your health!
Benjamin J. Pettus MD, PhD Fellowship Trained Mammographer for Riverside
Peninsula Radiology offers multiple diagnostic tests that are intended to diagnose diseases that are hidden from the naked eye. While many people know the names of the different types of tests and scans, most do not know what the scans are intended to do. One of the types of tests that is commonly performed at Peninsula Radiological Associates is a PET scan.
What is a PET scan?
A positron emission tomography, more commonly known as PET, is a type of procedure used to scan for possible diseases inside of your body. It uses gamma rays given off by a tracer to make a 3D image of the interior of your body possible. The way this works is that you are given the tracer, which is swallowed or injected, and it gives off low levels of radiation that the machine can pick up on, allowing it to map the inside of your body. It is a painless procedure, and has few risks associated with it. At the longest, the radiotracer will be out of your system within a day.
Why get a PET scan?
It’s an easy procedure that can detect and measure numerous things about the body, with the most important and often the most relevant being your oxygen use and blood flow. The scan is simple and non-invasive.
Why a PET scan over something else?
A lot of very dangerous diseases can be detected earlier with the aid of a PET scan, from cancer to brain disorders. The test can give you early warning for life-threatening diseases. It can also detect the stages of heart disease, and can prevent stroke and heart attacks if the disease is found early.
In short, a PET scan is a relatively easy test to perform that can help to diagnose life threatening health situations. If your doctor recommends it, then it is a procedure that could very well save your life.
If you have been advised or referred for a PET scan, contact our office for an appointment with one of our radiology professionals. Our team of providers has the experience and skill to provide outstanding health services in a compassionate, caring environment.
Did you know that March is Deep Vein Thrombosis Awareness Month? This campaign is aimed at raising awareness among consumers, healthcare professionals, and policy-makers about DVT and pulmonary embolus (PE) blood clots on national, as well as local levels. For those of you who don’t know, DVT is a serious medical condition that results from a blood clot in the vein. These kinds of blood clots are normally found in the lower leg, but they can also occur in the arm and shoulder veins as well. The biggest risk of DVT is that a piece of the clot could break free and directly enter the blood stream. Since the blood in your veins travels straight to your lungs in order to exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen, the clot (now called embolus) will cause the vein to enlarge until it reaches your lungs, where the passageway narrows. PE can result when the blood clot blocks the vein and sufficiently stops further blood flow through the lung.
DVT mainly affects the larger veins in the lower extremities (like the lower leg, thigh, or calf). Normally, they are only on one side of your body. Symptoms include sudden loss of breath and dizziness. The blood clot can also cause noticeable redness and warmth on your skin, leg pain, and swelling.
According to the American Heart Association, DVT occurs in about 2 million Americans every year. Since they can be so immediately fatal, pulmonary embolus clots are responsible for an estimated 300,000 deaths in the U.S. per year, which is more than breast cancer and AIDS combined. With such frightening statistics, it is important to learn and spread the word about DVT and PE.
Although this condition can be prevented and treated with anticoagulant medications, our staff specializes in catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT), which is a minimally invasive treatment that dissolves these troublesome blood clots directly in the blood vessel. By this procedure, x-ray imaging allows the physician to insert a specialized catheter into an affected vein in order to guide it to the blockage site. Once contact is made, the blood clot can then be dissolved by delivering either medication or a mechanical device to the affected area in order to break up the clot.
In addition to this process, we can also easily diagnose DVT by performing a duplex ultrasonography exam, which is a non-invasive procedure that allows us to visualize the flow of blood within an artery using color-doppler imaging.
At Peninsula Radiology Associates, we believe patient education is an important facet of our services. We know that many of our patients like to familiarize themselves with procedures before we meet them. One of the procedures frequently performed is called catheter embolization.
What Is a Catheter Embolization?
Embolization, also known as catheter embolization, is a radiologic procedure used to introduce medications or synthetic embolic agents into a blood vessel to occlude — or block — blood flow. This procedure is often indicated to:
- Stop abnormal bleeding, particularly gastrointestinal or pelvic bleeding.
- Eliminate abnormal connections between arteries and veins, including AVMs (arteriovenous malformations) and AVFs (arteriovenous fistulas).
- Cut blood supply to a tumor, including benign (non-cancerous) uterine fibroids in women and cancerous tumors in both men and women. Following embolization, a malignant tumor may shrink or grow more slowly, making chemotherapy and/or surgery more effective patient options.
- Treat aneurysms, which are bulges or sacs formed in weak artery walls.
- Treat varicoceles — enlarged veins — in the scrotum, which may contribute to infertility.
Embolization is a highly effective procedure, which can be performed on an outpatient basis. It helps you avoid more invasive surgical treatments or interventions for these and other common conditions when used alone. Catheter embolization may also be combined with other treatments such as surgery or radiation.
What To Expect During the Catheter Embolization Procedure?
During catheter embolization, a physician called an interventional radiologist will use fluoroscopy — an imaging process that is similar to X-rays, but provides live, real-time moving images of your body — to carefully guide a catheter to the area within your body requiring treatment. A catheter is a long, thin plastic tube measuring about one-eighth of an inch in diameter that can be threaded safely through your arterial system.
Once your catheter has been placed, your physician injects a contrast material with iodine through it so that X-rays can be taken to indicate the precise site of your bleeding or abnormality. Then your interventional radiologist inserts the appropriate embolic agent through the catheter. The precise agent placed depends on the condition for which you are being treated. Common embolic agents include:
- Acrylic polymer spheres, which are used to permanently block small blood vessels.
- Small metallic coils, which are frequently used to permanently stop abnormal bleeding.
- Liquid sclerosing agents, which are chemicals designed to cause scarring in a blood vessel that permanently seals the vessel.
Post Procedure Recommendations
You are normally sedated, using either a moderate or general anesthetic, and fitted with an IV (intravenous) drip and monitors for your vital signs at the start of the procedure.
Since arteries have no sensation, you should not experience any discomfort from the catheter once it has been inserted. You may experience a warm feeling from the contrast dye or other sensations when your embolic agent is administered, depending on your level of sedation. X-rays are taken to verify the success of the procedure.
Bed rest is recommended for at least six to eight hours following your procedure. You may experience some side effects after catheter embolization. Pain is a common one and is controlled by either oral medication or medication administered through your IV.
To schedule an appointment at Peninsula Radiology Associates, please call (757) 989-8830. We are proud to be affiliated with the Riverside Hospital system and have seven locations throughout Hamptons Roads to serve you. Please contact us with any questions about catheter embolization or the many other procedures and services our board-certified radiologists and experienced team expertly and compassionately provide.